A Checklist to Assess the Presence of a Constitutional Violation under 34 U.S.C. 12601

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This checklist can be used to assess the presence of constitutional violations throughout the course of a client’s case. Please refer to the National Youth Defense Systems Standards and their accompanying User Guide for litigation strategies to challenge potential constitutional violations noted in this checklist.

National Youth Defense System Standards User Guide

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This User Guide provides advocates with a step-by-step outline of how to actualize the vision of the National Youth Defense System Standards to equip and invest in youth defense teams to fight for the liberation of all youth. The User Guide outlines constitutional rights detailed in the System Standards, provides a checklist to assess the…

International Independent Expert Mechanism to Advance Racial Justice and Equality in the Context of Law Enforcement: Visit to the United States of America

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This report details findings from the International Independent Expert Mechanism to Advance Racial Justice and Equality in Law Enforcement (The Expert Mechanism), who were appointed by the president of the Human Rights Council in 2021 with a mandate to examine the human rights of Black communities in the U.S. as they relate to police interaction…

Memorandum of Agreement Regarding the Juvenile Court of Memphis and Shelby County

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Gideon at Sixty: Advancing the Right to Counsel for Kids in Cuyahoga County

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The Wren Collective (2023). This independent report by the Wren Collective examines youth defense appointment practices in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, and finds that juvenile court judges are routinely assigning private attorneys over public defenders to represent youth in juvenile court. Specifically, the public defender’s office was appointed to 25% of the juvenile delinquency cases in…

Juvenile Court Statistics 2021

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In January 2024, the National Center for Juvenile Justice released their annual report detailing data trends in juvenile courts across the country from 2005 to 2021. This report provides a national snapshot of various trends in delinquency cases, including key demographic patterns across age, gender, and race at various stages of case processing. Notably, in…

National Youth Defense System Standards

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Outlines steps that states must take to comply with the minimum requirements of the U.S. Constitution to protect the rights of youth facing deprivations of liberty.

Juvenile Amenability in Discretionary Transfers

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Myth vs. Fact: Youth Transfer Laws

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Cases on Due Process and Experts in Transfer Proceedings

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Juvenile Offender and Victims: 2014 National Report

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Growing Up Locked Down: Youth in Solitary Confinement in Jails and Prisons Across the United States (2012)

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Kent v. United States Opinion

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United States Department of Justice Investigation of the Shelby County Juvenile Court

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Miller v. Alabama Opinion

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Supplement to Motion to Transfer to Juvenile Court (Maryland)

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State v. Quijas Reply Brief of the Appellant (Washington)

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State v. Quijas Brief of the Appellant (Washington)

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Response to State’s Petition for Waiver of Juvenile Jurisdiction, and Motion to Dismiss Same Based on Untied States Constitution and Maryland Declaration of Rights (Maryland)

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Appellant’s Application for Reconsideration (Ohio)

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Defendant’s Memorandum in Aid of Sentencing (Virginia)

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Sample Juvenile Court Affidavit by Legal Ethicist Abbe Smith Addressing the Ethical Challenges of Direct File in Florida

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Selected Bibliography on Transfer/Waiver

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New Jersey in the Interest of N.H. Opinion

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Iowa v. Lyle Opinion

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