Contra Costa

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Charles H DC

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Alex A SOI

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Testing Uploads

A Checklist to Assess the Presence of a Constitutional Violation under 34 U.S.C. 12601

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This checklist can be used to assess the presence of constitutional violations throughout the course of a client’s case. Please refer to the National Youth Defense Systems Standards and their accompanying User Guide for litigation strategies to challenge potential constitutional violations noted in this checklist.

National Youth Defense System Standards User Guide

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This User Guide provides advocates with a step-by-step outline of how to actualize the vision of the National Youth Defense System Standards to equip and invest in youth defense teams to fight for the liberation of all youth. The User Guide outlines constitutional rights detailed in the System Standards, provides a checklist to assess the…

Amicus Brief: In the Interest of D.C.M.

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Appeal from the Circuit Court of Pemiscot County, Division I Thirty-Fourth Judicial Circuit, Pemiscot County No. 18PE-JU00022 The Honorable W. Keith Currie, Judge

A National Institutes of Health Approach for Advancing Research to Improve Youth Mental Health and Reduce Disparities

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The work described herein articulates a way forward for the NIH to continue to improve youth mental health and to reduce YMHD through supporting rigorous, impactful research. However, the urgency of the youth mental health crisis and YMHD is so pressing that many NIH ICOs have already begun this important work, particularly through supporting research.…

Freedom to Thrive: Reimagining Safety & Security in our Communities

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This report examines racial disparities, policing landscapes, and budgets in twelve jurisdictions across the country, comparing the city and county spending priorities with those of community organizations and their members. While many community members, supported by research and established best practices, assert that increased spending on police do not make them safer, cities and counties…

The Second Look Movement: A Review of the Nation’s Sentence Review Laws

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This report presents the evolution of the second look movement, which started with ensuring compliance with the U.S. Supreme Court’s decisions in Graham v. Florida (2010) and Miller v. Alabama (2012) on the constitutionality of juvenile life without parole (“JLWOP”) sentences.12 This reform has more recently expanded to other types of sentences and populations, such…

A Tale of Two Systems: An Assessment of Access to & Quality of Youth Defense Counsel in Utah

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The Utah assessment is the 29th statewide assessment of youth defense delivery systems the Gault Center has conducted. These assessments gather information and data about the structure and funding of defense systems and examine whether youth receive counsel at all critical stages, the timing of appointments, waiver of counsel, youth defense resource allocation, supervision and…

The Anti-Racist Imperative of Infancy

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Immediate and complete elimination of the juvenile legal system would be fraught with political and logistical challenges. Incremental “shrinkage,” however, is not only possible but has already begun to occur.307 One incrementalist strategy is to reduce the reach of that system by constricting its jurisdiction over certain behaviors and certain children, particularly the very young.…

Juvenile Life without Parole: Unusual and Unequal.

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A concentration of a few states has unevenly complied with Miller and the possibility of resentencing provided by Montgomery. Some states have refused to comply at all. This uneven implementation of the Miller decision has a particularly profound impact on racial disparities among those serving JLWOP. An analysis of those deemed worth protecting from JLWOP…

Protect and Redirect: How to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Juvenile Diversion

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Protect and Redirect: Best Practices for Juvenile Diversion

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Protect and Redirect: Measuring Equity and Results in Juvenile Diversion

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Protect and Redirect: Effective Messaging to Promote Juvenile Diversion Reform

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Locked Away for Life: The Case Against Juvenile Life Without Parole for Felony Murder

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This article makes the argument against the imposition of life without parole for young people who commit felony murder using an adolescent development framework. The author analyzes existing case law to outline that, just as the U.S. Supreme Court found the death penalty inappropriate for felony murder and relied on adolescent brain development research in…

#AssaultAtSpringValley: 2023 Analysis of Police Violence

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This report is an update to the December 2022 report that analyzed incidents of violence by school police officers against students and the disproportionate impact on Black and Latino/a students attending low-income schools. This update provides additional incidents from the 2022-2023 school year and more context about the reported incidents, such as geographical region and…

Reimagining Public Safety: Community Listening Sessions with Black Communities and Public Defenders

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This report is the product of a one-year project to hear directly from Black communities about what safety means to them. The Black Public Defender Association, in partnership with the BlackRoots Alliance, Cook County Public Defender, and Northwestern University, conducted more than 100 interviews of Black residents in Chicago to collect their stories and advice…

Latinx Disparities in Youth Incarceration

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The Sentencing Project released three factsheets highlighting racial disparities in the incarceration of youth: Black Disparities in Youth Incarceration, Disparities in Tribal Youth Incarceration, and Latinx Disparities in Youth Incarceration. These factsheets highlight youth placement rates in 2021 by state and demonstrate that racial disparities persist. Notably, Black youth nationwide are nearly five times more…

Tribal Disparities in Youth Incarceration

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The Sentencing Project released three factsheets highlighting racial disparities in the incarceration of youth: Black Disparities in Youth Incarceration, Disparities in Tribal Youth Incarceration, and Latinx Disparities in Youth Incarceration. These factsheets highlight youth placement rates in 2021 by state and demonstrate that racial disparities persist. Notably, Black youth nationwide are nearly five times more…

Black Disparities in Youth Incarceration

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The Sentencing Project released three factsheets highlighting racial disparities in the incarceration of youth: Black Disparities in Youth Incarceration, Disparities in Tribal Youth Incarceration, and Latinx Disparities in Youth Incarceration. These factsheets highlight youth placement rates in 2021 by state and demonstrate that racial disparities persist. Notably, Black youth nationwide are nearly five times more…

International Independent Expert Mechanism to Advance Racial Justice and Equality in the Context of Law Enforcement: Visit to the United States of America

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This report details findings from the International Independent Expert Mechanism to Advance Racial Justice and Equality in Law Enforcement (The Expert Mechanism), who were appointed by the president of the Human Rights Council in 2021 with a mandate to examine the human rights of Black communities in the U.S. as they relate to police interaction…

Abolish Gang Statutes with the Power of the Thirteenth Amendment: Reparations for the People

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This article calls for the use of the Thirteenth Amendment to abolish federal and state gang statutes. Highlighting the lineage of modern-day gang statutes from Black Codes to vagrancy laws from the Jim Crow era to gang injunctions, this article establishes how current gang statutes remain as “badges and incidents” of slavery. This article walks…

System Reforms to Reduce Youth Incarceration: Why We Must Explore Every Option Before Removing Any Young Person from Home

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This report highlights the importance of reducing the juvenile legal system’s reliance on incarceration by calling for systems reform that centers alternative-to-incarceration programs, adolescent development research, and evidence-based approaches. Highlighting successful state and local laws as well as policies and practices from across the country, the report offers examples of reforms like prohibiting the use…