A Checklist to Assess the Presence of a Constitutional Violation under 34 U.S.C. 12601

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This checklist can be used to assess the presence of constitutional violations throughout the course of a client’s case. Please refer to the National Youth Defense Systems Standards and their accompanying User Guide for litigation strategies to challenge potential constitutional violations noted in this checklist.

National Youth Defense System Standards User Guide

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This User Guide provides advocates with a step-by-step outline of how to actualize the vision of the National Youth Defense System Standards to equip and invest in youth defense teams to fight for the liberation of all youth. The User Guide outlines constitutional rights detailed in the System Standards, provides a checklist to assess the…

Freedom to Thrive: Reimagining Safety & Security in our Communities

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This report examines racial disparities, policing landscapes, and budgets in twelve jurisdictions across the country, comparing the city and county spending priorities with those of community organizations and their members. While many community members, supported by research and established best practices, assert that increased spending on police do not make them safer, cities and counties…

The Second Look Movement: A Review of the Nation’s Sentence Review Laws

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This report presents the evolution of the second look movement, which started with ensuring compliance with the U.S. Supreme Court’s decisions in Graham v. Florida (2010) and Miller v. Alabama (2012) on the constitutionality of juvenile life without parole (“JLWOP”) sentences.12 This reform has more recently expanded to other types of sentences and populations, such…

The Anti-Racist Imperative of Infancy

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Immediate and complete elimination of the juvenile legal system would be fraught with political and logistical challenges. Incremental “shrinkage,” however, is not only possible but has already begun to occur.307 One incrementalist strategy is to reduce the reach of that system by constricting its jurisdiction over certain behaviors and certain children, particularly the very young.…

Juvenile Life without Parole: Unusual and Unequal.

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A concentration of a few states has unevenly complied with Miller and the possibility of resentencing provided by Montgomery. Some states have refused to comply at all. This uneven implementation of the Miller decision has a particularly profound impact on racial disparities among those serving JLWOP. An analysis of those deemed worth protecting from JLWOP…

#AssaultAtSpringValley: 2023 Analysis of Police Violence

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This report is an update to the December 2022 report that analyzed incidents of violence by school police officers against students and the disproportionate impact on Black and Latino/a students attending low-income schools. This update provides additional incidents from the 2022-2023 school year and more context about the reported incidents, such as geographical region and…

Latinx Disparities in Youth Incarceration

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The Sentencing Project released three factsheets highlighting racial disparities in the incarceration of youth: Black Disparities in Youth Incarceration, Disparities in Tribal Youth Incarceration, and Latinx Disparities in Youth Incarceration. These factsheets highlight youth placement rates in 2021 by state and demonstrate that racial disparities persist. Notably, Black youth nationwide are nearly five times more…

Tribal Disparities in Youth Incarceration

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The Sentencing Project released three factsheets highlighting racial disparities in the incarceration of youth: Black Disparities in Youth Incarceration, Disparities in Tribal Youth Incarceration, and Latinx Disparities in Youth Incarceration. These factsheets highlight youth placement rates in 2021 by state and demonstrate that racial disparities persist. Notably, Black youth nationwide are nearly five times more…

Black Disparities in Youth Incarceration

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The Sentencing Project released three factsheets highlighting racial disparities in the incarceration of youth: Black Disparities in Youth Incarceration, Disparities in Tribal Youth Incarceration, and Latinx Disparities in Youth Incarceration. These factsheets highlight youth placement rates in 2021 by state and demonstrate that racial disparities persist. Notably, Black youth nationwide are nearly five times more…

Abolish Gang Statutes with the Power of the Thirteenth Amendment: Reparations for the People

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This article calls for the use of the Thirteenth Amendment to abolish federal and state gang statutes. Highlighting the lineage of modern-day gang statutes from Black Codes to vagrancy laws from the Jim Crow era to gang injunctions, this article establishes how current gang statutes remain as “badges and incidents” of slavery. This article walks…

Listening to Black Women and Girls: Lived Experience of Adultification Bias

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Strengthening Indigenous Communities to Eliminate Disparities in the Criminal Justice System Infographic 2024

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Girlhood Interrupted: The Erasure of Black Girls’ Childhood

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Overturning Roe v Wade and Planned Parenthood v Casey: An Assault to Reproductive and Racial Justice and the Mental Health of Youth

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Data, The New Cotton

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Black Lives Monitored

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Race, Surveillance, Resistance

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Virtual Shackles: Electronic Surveillance and the Adultification of Juvenile Courts

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Protect and Redirect: America’s Growing Movement to Divert Youth out of the Justice System

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Memorandum of Agreement Regarding the Juvenile Court of Memphis and Shelby County

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Justice By Geography: Differential Treatment of Youth by Locality at Juvenile Legal System Decision Points

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Barriers to Wellness: Voices and Views from Young People in Five Cities

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Create New Opportunities for “Persons In Need of Supervision” (PINS) to Succeed Without Legal System Intervention

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Unshackled: Stories of Redemption Among Serious Youth Offenders

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